Dr. Marla Spivak will be my guest on The Organic View to discuss her work with honeybees and the benefits of propolis to the immune system of honey bees. Dr. Spivak’s interest in bees began when she worked for a commercial beekeeper from New Mexico in 1975. She later completed her B.A. in Biology from Humboldt State University in northern California, and her PhD from the University of Kansas, under Dr. Orley “Chip” Taylor, in 1989. She spent two years in Costa Rica conducting her thesis research on the identification and ecology of Africanized and European honeybees. From 1989-1992 she did post-doctoral research at the Center for Insect Science at the University of Arizona. She began as Assistant Professor at the University of Minnesota in 1993. Influenced by Martha Gilliam and Steve Taber from the USDA Bee lab in Tucson, she became interested in hygienic behavior of honeybees. This interest has expanded into studies of “social immunity”, including the benefits of propolis to the immune system of honeybees.