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In retrospect it is evident that the diminution of superpower adversity was the other side of the coin of cooperation in space efforts and that from 1984 on, the only joint effort that was paramount in all minds was "Going to Mars, Together." We have already reviewed the extent of the U.S. endorsement of, and particippation in, the Phobos mission. When the role of American scientists in this mission became known, it was explained that it was "officially sanctioned due to the improvement in Soviet-American relations."It was also rerealed that American defense experts were concerned about the Soviets intent to use a powerful powerful lazer in space (to bombard the surface of Phobos), fearing it would give the Soviets an advantage in their "Star Wars" progrom of space defense; but the White House overruled the defense experts and gave its consent . *Such cooperation was quite a change from what had been the norm before then. In the past the Soviets not only guarded their space secrets zealously but also made every effort to upstage the Americans.*In 1969 they launched Luna 15 in a failed attempt of the Americans to the Moon; in 1971 they sent to Mars not one but three spacecraft intending to put orbiters on Mars just days ahead of Mariner 9. When the two superpowers paused for de'tente, they signed a space cooperation agreement in 1972; its only visible result was the Appollo Soyuzlinkup in 1975. Ensuing events, such as the supression of the Solidarity movement in Polandand the invasion of Afghanstan, renewed cold war tention. In 1982 Persident Reagan refused to renue the 1972 agreement, and launched instead a massive U.S. reamament effort against the "Evil Empire."