Domestic violence or violence that is expressed using intimate acts is unfortunately as timeless as history. Rape and other sexual exploitation have been used to demoralize groups of people as in German concentration camps, on North America-bound slave ships, and in World War II Japanese brothels filled with "comfort women." Society-sanctioned forms of violence against women include infibulation (fastening or buckling together, as in binding of feet, or of the female genitalia in an effort to render less able to walk or render unable to have sexual intercourse, respectively) and female genital cutting, also known as female circumcision. Virtually all the world's societies view or have viewed women as less valuable than men. From "honor" killings of women for being rape victims or having premarital sex in some countries, to women being omitted from serving on juries in the United States until 1701 and prevented from voting until 1920, the view that women are somehow second-class citizens encourages mistreatment of women.
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