Black Resistance in the North
While historians have endlessly debated the question of black docility under slavery, no such controversy has developed about the response of northern free blacks. Instead these Afro-Americans have until recently remained almost invisible to scholars and non-scholars alike. Only with the new interest in black history have the writings, speeches, and activities of northern Afro-Americans begun to receive the attention they have always deserved.
The racial ideologies of free blacks during the ante-bellum era spanned the spectrum from assimilation to nationalism. Their method of demonstrating displeasure ranged from indignant protest against discrimination in order to secure a proper share of their rights, to rejection of American society by advocating emigration abroad or separation at home. But then as now, there were no black conservatives in the sense that all Afro-Americans preferred change to preservation of the status quo.
Marcus Garvey 1865
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