In Africa, social security coverage ranges from 5 to 10 per cent of the population in sub-Saharan Africa and from 20 to over 70 per cent in the continent’s middle-income countries. High levels of informal employment translate into large coverage gaps in many countries, where only small minorities, usually formal-sector employees, have access to comprehensive social security protection. Typically, the rural population, self-employed workers and those marginal to formal labour markets are left vulnerable, being largely excluded from adequate or, indeed, any social protection.
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